- Heat oil in a large pot over medium-high heat. Cook beef shank, oxtail pieces, and ginger in hot oil, turning occasionally, until browned, 3 to 5 minutes per side. Add star anise, fennel seed, coriander seed, cloves, cinnamon stick, and cardamom pod to the pot and saute until fragrant, about 30 seconds.
- Stir water, onion, garlic, white sugar, and bay leaf into beef mixture; bring to a boil, reduce heat to low, and simmer until broth is flavorful and meat is falling off the bone, 5 to 6 hours. Remove meat and reserve. Strain broth into a pot; discard strained spices and vegetables.
- Chop beef shank meat and add to broth in pot; stir in fish sauce and soy sauce. Bring broth to a simmer and reduce heat to low to keep warm.
- Place rice noodles in a large bowl and cover with hot water. Set aside until noodles are softened, about 5 minutes. Drain and rinse in cold water.
- Place a handful of bean sprouts in the bottom of a large soup bowl. Top with a large handful of prepared rice noodles and drop a few jalapeno slices over noodles. Ladle beef broth into bowl to cover noodles.
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